Studies show that diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, is associated with many skin manifestations including vitiligo.
Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is the best known metabolic disease that can affect humans.
Its manifestation is related to insulin; to be precise, it may depend on a reduced availability of insulin, on the low sensitivity to the hormone by the target tissues or, finally, on a combination of these factors.
Difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes can strike at any age, but occurs mainly in children and adolescents, with peaks in particular between preschool and puberty. It usually occurs quickly and very intensely, and the risk factors are not yet known with certainty.
Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is the most frequent form of diabetes. It generally occurs in adulthood and the risk of occurrence increases with age. With a slower and more progressive onset than type 1 diabetes, overweight / obesity, unbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, high blood cholesterol and / or triglycerides, familiarity were identified among the risk factors.
Correlation between Vitiligo and Diabetes
Vitiligo is an acquired, non-contagious disease. Progressive and patchy loss of skin and hair pigmentation and mucous membranes. It subsequently results from the loss of melanocytes from the affected areas.
Vitiligo is known to occur with many autoimmune diseases. There are many reports of its association with type 1 diabetes as opposed to its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Some recent studies have shown its greater presence in type 2 diabetes. These studies aimed to study the prevalence of vitiligo cases in diabetic patients to compare the prevalence of vitiligo in an age- and sex-matched non-diabetic population group.
The test was done on about 600 patients with type 2 diabetes, they were matched for sex and age to healthy patients. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured. A complete medical history was then conducted, a physical examination and a Wood lamp examination to detect vitiligo. The test result observed vitiligo 12% of cases.
In conclusion, it can be said that vitiligo is associated with diabetes which gives further weight to the theory that vitiligo is an autoimmune disease, as is autoimmune diabetes.